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An office building at night showing people working late | iStock/Kilhan

某调查中表明,有7%的人因为工作场所的压力被送进了医院。

Jeffrey Pfeffer ,来自斯坦福商学院的行为组织教授,对他近期的书充满了雄心壮志,他说“我想让这个在静寂春天里的工作场所变的健康”,“我们正在被工作绩效和个人成绩伤害着, 这是在警告我们需要停下来。已经造成了太多的伤害”

HarperBusiness于5月20号出版的书“死于薪水”,描述了一系列现代工作中的疾病是如何杀死人的— 从健康保险到长时间的心理影响及工作和家庭的冲突。

Pfeffer 参见了一次前沿采访。下文对内容的长度和清晰度进行了编辑。

我被Barry-Wehmiller的CEO,Robert Chapman的故事震惊了,站在1000位其他CEO面前说“你们是卫生保健危机的制造者”。

这是事实。他从三方面进行说明。第一点,卫生保健的花费,来自于慢性病,像糖尿病,心血管,心脏病,占据发达国家巨大比例的开销,特别是美国,这一点和世界经济论坛和其他来源报道的数据是一样的。你开始于这个前提:占据很大一部分的疾病,大于占75%,在美国来自于慢性疾病。

第 1 段(可获 3.23 积分)

其次,有大量流行病学的文献表明,糖尿病、心血管疾病和代谢综合症——以及许多与健康有关的个人行为,如暴饮暴食、运动不足、吸毒和酗酒——都起因于压力。

第三,大量数据表明压力的最大来源是来自工作场所。所以这就是为何查普曼支持并发表声明说首席执行官是医疗危机的根源:你们是压力的来源,压力导致慢性疾病,慢性疾病是我们持续存在的巨额医疗费用中最主要的组成部分

这种联系是一直都存在吗,还是在工作环境中发生变化才让我们注意到了这点?

我认为刚才描述的联系是一直存在的,因为疾病的生理和病因并没有发生真正的改变。但我想说的是所有我遇到的证据里——这并不是完美的证据——我没有看到任何与工作场所普遍恶化的说法相悖的地方。

根据盖洛普的调查发现,人们工作投入度很低。根据爱德曼信任指数显示,人们对管理层的不信任程度很严重。根据会议委员会的说法,人们对工作的满意度很低,并且持续下降。零工经济在增长,经济不安全感在增长,工资增长总体上停滞不前。根据凯泽基金会的调查,与过去相比,雇主赞助的医疗保险覆盖的人更少了。而且,即使是那些被保险覆盖的人,也有很高比例的人说他们因为成本问题放弃了治疗和药物治疗。

第 2 段(可获 3.31 积分)

I look out at the workplace and I see stress, layoffs, longer hours, work-family conflict, enormous amounts of economic insecurity. I see a workplace that has become shockingly inhumane.

You reference professor Nuria Chinchilla [of IESE Business School], who describes this as social pollution. What does that mean?

She has said that the real inconvenient truth is not just that there is environmental pollution, which there certainly is, but that there is also social pollution. The work hours that companies are demanding of their employees are causing the breakup of marriages, burdens on raising children, and general disruption to family life. And the family unit is an important source of social support.

You can see this in stories from my book — the GE guy who’s on the road all the time and never sees his kids until he finally decides to quit. So she coined the term “social pollution,” and I think it’s a wonderful term.

Companies should care about what they are doing to the social environment, not just the physical environment.

You draw that out in the book: a focus on corporate sustainability that ignores social damages.

第 3 段(可获 2.39 积分)

No one would ever stand up — or at least not many people — and say, “We clear-cut this forest” or “We took the top of this mountain off for coal, and aren’t we proud.” But 3G Capital will proudly stand up and say, “We’ve laid off one-fifth of the workforce. Let’s pat ourselves on the back!”

And we tolerate it. The point I make several times is that there are behaviors with respect to the physical environment that we have decided are impermissible. You are no longer permitted to burn whatever you want and throw it into the air, or dump whatever chemical you want into the water. Companies have accepted this and now parade their environmental bona fides.

Meanwhile, these companies are engaging in all kinds of things that are harming the human beings who work for them. These are things they should report on, and these are things that we should stop tolerating.

Why is this normal?

I can speculate. Maybe it’s because we see the polar bears and the trees and the physical environment as not being agentic, in the sense of not being able to take action to defend themselves. And maybe we see human beings as being more agentic and responsible for their own well-being.

第 4 段(可获 2.66 积分)

When I talk about this book, I’ve had plenty of people say to me that if someone doesn’t like where he’s working, then he needs to go find another job. Which is easier said than done.

You talk about a number of barriers to moving, and one of those is individual psychology. What is that psychological dynamic?

There are many issues. One simple one that we should never overlook is sheer exhaustion. Finding a job is itself a job. If you are physically or psychologically drained by workplace stress, then you’re not going to have the capacity to go out and look for another job.

I want to wake people up. This is a serious issue that has serious consequences for corporate performance and for people’s well-being.

Jeffrey Pfeffer

Companies also play to our egos. They say, “What’s wrong with you? Aren’t you good enough? We’re a special organization. We’re changing the world and only certain people are going to be up for the task.” Who wants to admit they’re not good enough?

And we are influenced by what we see our peers doing. I’ve had people say to me: “I look around and all my colleagues are working themselves to death. What makes me think I’m so special that I don’t have to?” We have come to normalize the unacceptable. It’s hideous.

第 5 段(可获 2.96 积分)

You make clear that yoga classes and nap rooms won’t fix this. What are some of ways this culture might change?

I don’t think it’s going to. What changed environmental pollution? People decided that we were not going to permit companies to create a world with polluted air and fouled water.

I cannot see that happening with respect to the workplace in the current political environment and the push for deregulation. And, for reasons I’ve already alluded to, I think people don’t necessarily see, recognize, or appreciate what’s going on in the workplace. To the extent that they do, they think it’s inevitable — everyone has to be working long hours and be miserable.

You know what might change this? I gave a talk on this to Stanford alumni and afterward a lawyer came up to me and said there are going to be lawsuits.

On what grounds?

In a way parallel to the lawsuits that were filed against tobacco companies. Some companies are killing their workers. People have been harmed. If I had to bet on how this will change, some company is going to get sued, some lawyer will win an enormous award, and that will open the floodgates.

第 6 段(可获 2.59 积分)

If you meet with executives, can you make a competitive strategy argument to not treat employees this way?

Of course.

Is that effective?

Depends on whether they have any sense.

There’s data on this — there shouldn’t need to be, but there is — that suggests that when people come to work sick, they’re not as productive. Companies have problems with presenteeism — people physically on the job but not really paying attention to what they are doing — with lost workdays from psychological stress and illness, with high health care costs. Seven percent of people in one survey were hospitalized — hospitalized! — because of workplace stress; 50% had missed time at work because of stress. People are quitting their jobs because of stress. The business costs are enormous.

Did you change your mind about anything when working on the book?

Yes, I changed my mind in the following way: It’s worse than I thought. And obviously these workforce things that cause ill health do not fall equally on the population. If you are less educated, you have more economic insecurity, the likelihood of receiving benefits is lower, your ability to control your work hours and your job are worse, and so health outcomes are worse. But I didn’t think it would be as bad for as many people.

第 7 段(可获 2.74 积分)

I didn’t think the workplace would be the fifth leading cause of death in the United States. And, by the way, when I talk to HR people, they say the numbers we have are certainly wrong: They are too low.

I want to wake people up. This is a serious issue that has serious consequences for corporate performance and for people’s well-being. We should care about people’s psychological and physical health, not just about profits.

第 8 段(可获 0.98 积分)

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