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世界上绝大多数人都认同糖类正在损害我们的健康和生命,这一点都不奇怪[1-4]。在过去的30年中,糖分摄取量逐年递增,患病率也随之激增[5-9]。我们被这个可怕的消息动摇弄得忧心忡忡,以至于社交媒体,“自拍”还有名人都成了次要关注点了[10,11]。

对糖的关注度日益提升,然而,如果只是引起即时的注意是不够的,人们还应该即刻行动起来[12-14]。不幸的是,障碍始终无法终止[15,16]。其中,最小的一个障碍就是食品工业本身[17]。拿橙汁生产商举例,橙汁是传统标准的美国早餐饮料,然而一杯仅8盎司的橙汁中就包含了高达21克的糖[18]。 

第 1 段(可获 1.6 积分)

糖的成瘾性以及过度摄入糖分的风险都已被证明[19,20]。 然而,即便如此我们似乎还是无法克制自己[21,22] 。糖经常在未经我们的同意下被添加到产品中[23]。尤其在针对儿童的营销中,这种情况非常严重[24,25]。我们必须阻止这种行为。我们的孩子是我们的未来,如果他们变得肥胖,认知能力受损,病弱,那么他们能有多少未来?

为什么糖会如此有害?生物化学已经完全阐明了这个问题[20]。糖进入血液时会引起胰岛素分泌[26]。你摄入的糖越多,分泌的胰岛素也越多。高糖饮食可导致胰岛素耐受[27]。 这是肥胖和超重人士的标志之一[28]。 如果你吃了太多的糖,那必然会导致低血糖,这通常涉及到“糖崩溃”[29]。 这会让你的身体持续地渴望更多的糖分,成瘾过程也会延续[30]。

第 2 段(可获 2.06 积分)

Sugar is Killing Us | The Paleo Diet

与葡萄糖相关的灰质区域(A)和白质(B)的矢状面、冠状位和轴面代表图。
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073697.g002

这是个简单的模式,并且是个我们都很熟悉的模式[36]。另外,压力也可促使我们摄入过量食物[31, 37]。 我们过度摄入的不只是卡路里,还有与神经奖赏系统相关的食物[38]。 这意味着,这些食物要么就是含糖量高,要么就是糖和脂肪的含量都高[39]。 在2010年的一项研究中,研究人员表明,高脂或高糖饮食可破坏大脑刺激奖赏(brain-stimulation reward,BSR)通路的敏感性[40]。因此,你会习惯于这些食物所带来的奖赏,并且还会渴望更多[41]。

第 3 段(可获 1.43 积分)

糖尿病的发病率在全国范围以及世界范围内都在飞涨[42]。这无可辩驳。猜一猜与糖尿病发病率相关的还有什么在猛涨?你猜对了:糖的消耗。现在已经出现肥胖新生儿了[43,44]。

所有的这些问题和情况都与糖的摄入量直接相关,然而,你首先可能会对你的糖分消耗量大吃一惊。最近的一项研究表明,食品制造商没有在其产品标签上表明其真实的果葡糖浆含量.[45]。这困扰到你了吗?这本应该困扰到你。

Sugar is Killing Us | The Paleo Diet

过多的糖除了会产生有害的生理效应外,还会产生巨大且具有毁灭性的经济效应[32]。 例如,每年仅糖尿病就花费掉了美国2.45亿美元[46]。仅仅五年时间就上涨了41%。这个可怕的数字吓到你了吗?

第 4 段(可获 1.8 积分)

为什么血糖水平越高,记忆力就越低,且海马组织也越小[47]? 怎么看待《New England Journal of Medicine》杂志中的一项研究,即高血糖水平可能是造成痴呆的一个风险因子[48]? 这一发现中有趣(令人惊讶)的是,这种风险是针对无糖尿病的人。这意味着,你有可能摄取了“正常”量的糖,并且没有表现出糖尿病症状,即便如此你仍然有患痴呆的风险。行动起来,不要睁一只眼闭一只眼,拯救你的健康吧。

Sugar is Killing Us | The Paleo Diet

N Engl J Med. Aug 8, 2013; 369(6): 540–548.

第 5 段(可获 1.31 积分)

一点儿也不令人惊讶的是, 糖分的摄入促进了儿童和成人的体重增加[33]。所有的行为都有其生化基础。多动症(ADHD),注意力缺陷障碍(ADD)等疾病的部分病因可能就是饮食不良[49,50]。而这种饮食不良,几乎都是高糖饮食[51,52]。已有研究表明,强烈甜味的奖赏效应超过了可卡因,因此就不难理解为什么那么多美国人会无法控制地摄入糖分[53]。但是,为了阻止惊人的医疗费用的攀升,他们必须停止过度摄入糖分,并且必须将他们的注意再次聚焦到营养全面、 真正的食物身上,这些都是古饮食的一部分。

第 6 段(可获 1.25 积分)

另有研究表明,大多数美国成年人摄入了超过建议量的添加糖[34],这种过度摄入增加了心血管疾病死亡风险[54]。确凿的证据表明,糖分正在消磨我们的生命。研究已阐明,高水平的糖分危害健康[55]。 有一个有趣的研究表示,只吃垃圾食品会让大鼠变得懒惰[56]。这有给你提供思考的食粮吗?也许你应该优先考虑改变饮食?

胰岛素是为了处理血液中的糖而分泌的,它可阻断瘦素信号[35]。瘦素是一种可产生“饱腹感”的激素,它可以告诉下丘脑应该停止进食了[57]。由于我们现在的胰岛素分泌量是以前的2-3倍,你可以直接看到,这对我们的世界健康造成了多严重的后果[58]。为什么我们会分泌更多的胰岛素?很简单,处理我们过度摄入的糖分。它不是一个复杂的方案,但这个方案正在令国家破产,使人病弱、超重。

第 7 段(可获 2.36 积分)

预防是最好的办法。避免高糖饮食,变得更苗条,思考更敏捷,感觉更畅快。你可以通过许多与饮食相关的途径来改善你的身体状况。古饮食,其本质是低糖、高营养的食物,古饮食充满了微量营养素,将是通往健康的最佳途径。

第 8 段(可获 0.7 积分)

参考资料

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第 9 段(可获 15.74 积分)

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