原文译文操作

At around 8pm on Sunday 29 January, a young man walked into a mosque in the Sainte-Foy neighbourhood of Quebec City and opened fire on worshippers with a 9mm handgun. The imam had just finished leading the congregation in prayer when the intruder started shooting at them. He killed six and injured 19 more. The dead included an IT specialist employed by the city council, a grocer, and a science professor.

The suspect, Alexandre Bissonnette, a 27-year-old student, has been charged with six counts of murder, though not terrorism. Within hours of the attack, Ralph Goodale, the Canadian minister for public safety, described the killer as “a lone wolf”. His statement was rapidly picked up by the world’s media.

2017年1月29日,周日,晚上八点,一个年轻男子走进了加拿大魁北克城Sainte-Foy区的一座清真寺,拿着一把9毫米的手枪开始扫射做礼拜的人群,当时伊玛目才刚刚带领会众祈祷完毕。该名年轻男子杀死了6人,还伤了19人。死者中包括一个市议会聘请的IT专家、一个杂食店主、和一个科学老师。

嫌疑人名为亚历山大·比索奈特(Alexandre Bissonnette),27岁,学生,虽然没有被指控进行恐怖主义活动,但他将面临六项一级谋杀的罪名。袭击发生几小时之后,加拿大公共安全部长拉尔夫·古德尔(Ralph Goodale)称凶手是个“独狼”。之后他的表述迅速被全球媒体引用。

纠正翻译

Goodale’s statement came as no surprise. In early 2017, well into the second decade of the most intense wave of international terrorism since the 1970s, the lone wolf has, for many observers, come to represent the most urgent security threat faced by the west. The term, which describes an individual actor who strikes alone and is not affiliated with any larger group, is now widely used by politicians, journalists, security officials and the general public. It is used for Islamic militant attackers and, as the shooting in Quebec shows, for killers with other ideological motivations. Within hours of the news breaking of an attack on pedestrians and a policeman in central London last week, it was used to describe the 52-year-old British convert responsible. Yet few beyond the esoteric world of terrorism analysis appear to give this almost ubiquitous term much thought.

古德尔的声明并不令人意外。在2017年初——进入20世纪70年代以来国际恐怖主义袭击浪潮凶猛的第二十多年,很多观察家认为,独狼代表了西方世界面临的最紧迫的安全威胁。这一词汇,本来用来形容单独行动、没有与任何更大团体相关的演员,现在被政治家、记者、安全官员和大众广泛使用,形容伊斯兰武装分子。正如在此次魁北克的枪击事件中一样,它还被用来形容有其他意识形态动机的杀手。上周伦敦市中心发生了一起针对行人和一名警察的袭击事件。不到几个小时,52岁的英国皈依者嫌疑犯就被称作了“独狼”。然而,在神秘的恐怖主义分析世界之外,很少有人对这个几乎普遍存在的词语进行深入思考。

纠正翻译

Terrorism has changed dramatically in recent years. Attacks by groups with defined chains of command have become rarer, as the prevalence of terrorist networks, autonomous cells, and, in rare cases, individuals, has grown. This evolution has prompted a search for a new vocabulary, as it should. The label that seems to have been decided on is “lone wolves”. They are, we have been repeatedly told, “Terror enemy No 1”.

Yet using the term as liberally as we do is a mistake. Labels frame the way we see the world, and thus influence attitudes and eventually policies. Using the wrong words to describe problems that we need to understand distorts public perceptions, as well as the decisions taken by our leaders. Lazy talk of “lone wolves” obscures the real nature of the threat against us, and makes us all less safe.

最近的几年里,恐怖主义已经发生了很大改变。由于恐怖主义网络以及自治单元(甚至个案中的恐怖主义个体)的扩散与成长,由清晰的命令链条指挥的袭击减少了。这场变革致使某一词汇的搜索量大增,理所当然。这个词汇即是“独狼”。他们就是我们一而再,再而三强调的,“第一号恐怖主义敌人”。

然而如此随意用词是错误的。标签限制了人们的世界观,由此影响到人们的态度乃至政策。使用错误的词语来描述问题,导致我们扭曲地理解公众的观点与领导人的决定。懒惰地使用“独狼”来描述问题掩盖了我们面对的真实威胁,使我们更加危险。

纠正翻译

The image of the lone wolf who splits from the pack has been a staple of popular culture since the 19th century, cropping up in stories about empire and exploration from British India to the wild west. From 1914 onwards, the term was popularised by a bestselling series of crime novels and films centred upon a criminal-turned-good-guy nicknamed Lone Wolf. Around that time, it also began to appear in US law enforcement circles and newspapers. In April 1925, the New York Times reported on a man who “assumed the title of ‘Lone Wolf’”, who terrorised women in a Boston apartment building. But it would be many decades before the term came to be associated with terrorism.

自十九世纪以来,那种脱离群体而活的独狼的形象就成为各种流行文化的主题,出现在帝国和从英属印度到狂野西部的探险故事里。从1914年以前,“独狼”一词就受到一些列畅销犯罪小说的喜爱,成为浪子回头故事里主角的昵称。在那段时期,这个词语也在美国的执法人员间和报纸中使用。在1925年四月,纽约时报以“独狼”为题报道了某人的故事,此人在波士顿公寓中恐吓女性。不过经过了几十年,这个词语才和恐怖主义发生联系。

纠正翻译

In the 1960s and 1970s, waves of rightwing and leftwing terrorism struck the US and western Europe. It was often hard to tell who was responsible: hierarchical groups, diffuse networks or individuals effectively operating alone. Still, the majority of actors belonged to organisations modelled on existing military or revolutionary groups. Lone actors were seen as eccentric oddities, not as the primary threat.

The modern concept of lone-wolf terrorism was developed by rightwing extremists in the US. In 1983, at a time when far-right organisations were coming under immense pressure from the FBI, a white nationalist named Louis Beam published a manifesto that called for “leaderless resistance” to the US government. Beam, who was a member of both the Ku Klux Klan and the Aryan Nations group, was not the first extremist to elaborate the strategy, but he is one of the best known. He told his followers that only a movement based on “very small or even one-man cells of resistance … could combat the most powerful government on earth”.

在十九世纪的六十年代和七十年代,右翼和左翼恐怖主义浪潮袭击美国和欧洲西部。很难辨明谁应该为此负责:分层团体,扩散网络,还是高效操作的个体。实施行动的主体仍然从属于那些以军事或革命团体为原型的组织。独立行动的个体被视作怪人,而不构成主要威胁。

美国右翼极端分子发展了现代的“独狼恐怖分子”的概念。1983年,那时极右组织面临来自FBI的巨大压力。有一白人种族主义者,名叫 Louis Beam 的,向政府发表了一篇宣言,题为“无领导的抵抗力量”。Beam, 此人是三K党和雅利安民族组织的成员,并非首个编制此种策略的极端分子,但他最为知名。他对追随者说 只有“一种基于个体成员微小的抵抗力量的运动……能够与地球上的强大政府力量对抗”。

纠正翻译

Timothy McVeigh


Pinterest

Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh leaves court, 1995. Photograph: David Longstreath/AP

Experts still argue over how much impact the thinking of Beam and other like-minded white supremacists had on rightwing extremists in the US. Timothy McVeigh, who killed 168 people with a bomb directed at a government office in Oklahoma City in 1995, is sometimes cited as an example of someone inspired by their ideas. But McVeigh had told others of his plans, had an accomplice, and had been involved for many years with rightwing militia groups. McVeigh may have thought of himself as a lone wolf, but he was not one.

Timothy McVeigh

Facebook Twitter Pinterest

俄克拉荷马市轰炸者Timothy McVeigh离开法庭,1995年。摄影:David Longstreath/美联社

专家仍然在争论Beam和其他志同道合的白人至上主义者的思想对美国的右翼极端分子有多大的影响。Timothy McVeigh,1995年在俄克拉荷马市向政府办公室投弹杀死了168人,他被作为人们受思想鼓动的一个例子。不过McVeigh告诉了其他人自己的计划,他有一名同伙,并且参与了多年的右翼民兵组织。McVeigh也许认为自己是“独狼”,但他并不是一个人。

纠正翻译

One far-right figure who made explicit use of the term lone wolf was Tom Metzger, the leader of White Aryan Resistance, a group based in Indiana. Metzger is thought to have authored, or at least published on his website, a call to arms entitled “Laws for the Lone Wolf”. “I am preparing for the coming War. I am ready when the line is crossed … I am the underground Insurgent fighter and independent. I am in your neighborhoods, schools, police departments, bars, coffee shops, malls, etc. I am, The Lone Wolf!,” it reads.

From the mid-1990s onwards, as Metzger’s ideas began to spread, the number of hate crimes committed by self-styled “leaderless” rightwing extremists rose. In 1998, the FBI launched Operation Lone Wolf against a small group of white supremacists on the US west coast. A year later, Alex Curtis, a young, influential rightwing extremist and protege of Metzger, told his hundreds of followers in an email that “lone wolves who are smart and commit to action in a cold-mannered way can accomplish virtually any task before them ... We are already too far along to try to educate the white masses and we cannot worry about [their] reaction to lone wolf/small cell strikes.”

明确使用“独狼”术语的一名极右人物是 Tom Metzger,他是白色雅利安抵抗军的领袖,这个组织位于印第安纳州。他被认为曾撰写,或至少在其网站上发表了题为“独狼法则”的战斗号令。“我正在为即将来临的战斗做准备。我已经准备好了……我是地下叛乱分子和独立战士。我在你们的社区,学校,警察部门,酒吧,咖啡店,商场等等。我是,独狼!,”号令写道。

从1990年代中期开始,随着Metzger的思想开始传播,自称为“群龙无首”的右翼极端分子所做的仇恨犯罪的数量上升。1998年,联邦调查局在美国西海岸对一小群白人至上主义者展开调查。一年后,Alex Curtis,一个年轻的、有影响力的右翼极端分子,也是Metzger的门徒,在一封邮件中告诉他的数百名追随者“聪明、以冷酷态度做出行动的独狼可以完成他们面前的几乎任何任务……我们已经走得太远了,无法教育白人群众,也无法担心他们对独狼/小细胞袭击的反应。”

纠正翻译

The same year, the New York Times published a long article on the new threat headlined “New Face of Terror Crimes: ‘Lone Wolf’ Weaned on Hate”. This seems to have been the moment when the idea of terrorist “lone wolves” began to migrate from rightwing extremist circles, and the law enforcement officials monitoring them, to the mainstream. In court on charges of hate crimes in 2000, Curtis was described by prosecutors as an advocate of lone-wolf terrorism.

When, more than a decade later, the term finally became a part of the everyday vocabulary of millions of people, it was in a dramatically different context.

同年,《纽约时报》发表了一则长篇文章,关于新威胁的标题“恐怖犯罪的新面孔: ‘孤狼’ 恨意渐远”。这似乎是恐怖分子“孤独的狼”开始从右翼极端主义圈子转移的时刻,而执法人员的主要活动就是监视他们。2000年因仇恨犯罪被提起诉讼, Curtis被检察官描述为“独狼恐怖”的支持者。

十多年后,这个词最终成为上千万人们日常词汇的一部分, 这是在截然不同的环境中。

纠正翻译

After 9/11, lone-wolf terrorism suddenly seemed like a distraction from more serious threats. The 19 men who carried out the attacks were jihadis who had been hand picked, trained, equipped and funded by Osama bin Laden, the leader of al-Qaida, and a small group of close associates.

Although 9/11 was far from a typical terrorist attack, it quickly came to dominate thinking about the threat from Islamic militants. Security services built up organograms of terrorist groups. Analysts focused on individual terrorists only insofar as they were connected to bigger entities. Personal relations – particularly friendships based on shared ambitions and battlefield experiences, as well as tribal or familial links – were mistaken for institutional ones, formally connecting individuals to organisations and placing them under a chain of command.

911后,孤狼恐怖主义忽然被其他更严重的威胁削弱了存在感。这19名袭击者是圣战分子,他们是由基地组织的领导人奥萨马·本·拉登和一亲密的伙伴所挑选、训练、装备和资助的。

虽然9/11远非一场典型的恐怖袭击,思考伊斯兰激进分子的威胁迅速占据了主导地位。安全部门建立了恐怖组织的分布图,分析家只关注个别恐怖分子,因为他们与更大的团体联系在了一起。个人关系(尤其是基于共同野心及共浴战场的友谊、如同部落或家庭的联系)被误认为是机构性的,这一误判正式地将个人与组织联系起来,并认为他们是同一指挥系统下的。

纠正翻译


As the 2000s drew to a close, attacks perpetrated by people who seemed to be acting alone began to outnumber all others


This approach suited the institutions and individuals tasked with carrying out the “war on terror”. For prosecutors, who were working with outdated legislation, proving membership of a terrorist group was often the only way to secure convictions of individuals planning violence. For a number ofgovernments around the world – Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Egypt – linking attacks on their soil to “al-Qaida” became a way to shift attention away from their own brutality, corruption and incompetence, and to gain diplomatic or material benefits from Washington. For some officials in Washington, linking terrorist attacks to “state-sponsored” groups became a convenient way to justify policies, such as the continuing isolation of Iran, or military interventions such as the invasion of Iraq. For many analysts and policymakers, who were heavily influenced by the conventional wisdom on terrorism inherited from the cold war, thinking in terms of hierarchical groups and state sponsors was comfortably familiar.

随着2000年接近尾声,似乎是独自行动的人所犯下的恐怖袭击,其数量开始开始超过其他所有的总和。

这种做法适合于执行“反恐战争”的机构和个人,对于那些使用过时法律的检察官来说,证明一个人是恐怖组织的成员,通常是认定他企图实行暴力的唯一途径。世界上许多国家的政府——埃及,巴基斯坦,乌兹别克斯坦——把他们当地遭受的袭击和“基地组织”联系起来,成为了一个将注意力从他们自己的暴行、贪腐及无能上转移走的方法,并借此从华盛顿获得外交或物质利益。对于华盛顿的一些官员来说,将恐怖袭击与“国家支持”的组织联系起来成为了一种正当的政策,比如对伊朗的持续孤立,或军事干预,比如入侵伊拉克。对于许多深受冷战遗留下来的恐怖主义传统智慧的影响的分析家和政策制定者来说,他们对等级组织和作为后台老板的国家的想法是很熟悉的。

纠正翻译

A final factor was more subtle. Attributing the new wave of violence to a single group not only obscured the deep, complex and troubling roots of Islamic militancy but also suggested the threat it posed would end when al-Qaida was finally eliminated. This was reassuring, both for decision-makers and the public.

By the middle of the decade, it was clear that this analysis was inadequate. Bombs in Bali, Istanbul and Mombasa were the work of centrally organised attackers, but the 2004 attack on trains in Madrid had been executed by a small network only tenuously connected to the al-Qaida senior leadership 4,000 miles away. For every operation like the 2005 bombings in London – which was close to the model established by the 9/11 attacks – there were more attacks that didn’t seem to have any direct link to Bin Laden, even if they might have been inspired by his ideology. There was growing evidence that the threat from Islamic militancy was evolving into something different, something closer to the “leaderless resistance” promoted by white supremacists two decades earlier.

最后一个因素更微妙,将新的暴力事件浪潮归咎于一个组织不仅掩盖了伊斯兰激进主义的深层、复杂和令人不安的根源,但同时也暗示了当al Qaida最终被消灭时,它所带来的威胁将结束,这对会令决策者和公众都安心。

过了5年左右,很明显,这种分析是不够的。巴厘、伊斯坦布尔和蒙巴萨的炸弹恐怖袭击都出自有组织的袭击者。但是2004年发生于马德里的火车袭击事件,是由一个与基地组织高层领导基本无关、且与之相距4000英里的小型组织实施的。对于每一次类似于2005年伦敦爆炸、接近于911袭击所建立的模式的行动——即使他们可能受到了本.拉登的思想启发,更多的攻击似乎与它没有任何直接联系。越来越多的证据表明,伊斯兰激进主义的威胁正在介入各方面事务,更接近于20年前白人至上主义者所倡导的“无领导抵抗”。

纠正翻译

As the 2000s drew to a close, attacks perpetrated by people who seemed to be acting alone began to outnumber all others. These events were less deadly than the spectacular strikes of a few years earlier, but the trend was alarming. In the UK in 2008, a convert to Islam with mental health problems attempted to blow up a restaurant in Exeter, though he injured no one but himself. In 2009, a US army major shot 13 dead in Fort Hood, Texas. In 2010, a female student stabbed an MP in London. None appeared, initially, to have any broader connections to the global jihadi movement.

随着2000年接近尾声,似乎是单独行动人犯实施的袭击,其数目开始超过其余所有的总量。这些事件不如几年前那些壮观的罢工那么极端,但这种趋势令人担忧。2008在英国,一个皈依伊斯兰教的精神病患者试图通过自杀式袭击,炸毁埃克塞特的一家餐馆。 2009年,一名美国陆军少校在得克萨斯州胡德堡射杀13人。2010年,一名女学生在伦敦刺伤一名议员。期初,没有人联想到事情与全球圣战运动有关。

纠正翻译

How the changing media is changing terrorism | Jason Burke


Read more

In an attempt to understand how this new threat had developed, analysts raked through the growing body of texts posted online by jihadi thinkers. It seemed that one strategist had been particularly influential: a Syrian called Mustafa Setmariam Nasar, better known as Abu Musab al-Suri. In 2004, in a sprawling set of writings posted on an extremist website, Nasar had laid out a new strategy that was remarkably similar to “leaderless resistance”, although there is no evidence that he knew of the thinking of men such as Beam or Metzger. Nasar’s maxim was “Principles, not organisations”. He envisaged individual attackers and cells, guided by texts published online, striking targets across the world.

不断变化的传播媒介是如何改变恐怖主义的| Jason Burke

为了理解这种新的威胁是如何发展的,分析家们通过圣战思想家们在网上发布的大量文本进行了调查。. 似乎有一位战略家特别有影响力:一个叫Mustafa Setmariam Nasar的叙利亚人,更多地被称为Abu Musab al-Suri。2004年, 在一个极端主义网站上发表的一系列冗长的文章中,纳萨尔提出了一个新的策略,它与“无领导的抵抗”非常相似,尽管没有证据表明他如Beam或Metzger那样知道人的想法,Nasar的格言是“原则大于组织”。他预料每一个单独袭击者以及秘密组织,都会在在网上发布的文本指导下袭击世界各地的目标。

纠正翻译

Having identified this new threat, security officials, journalists and policymakers needed a new vocabulary to describe it. The rise of the term lone wolf wasn’t wholly unprecedented. In the aftermath of 9/11, the US had passed anti-terror legislation that included a so-called “lone wolf provision”. This made it possible to pursue terrorists who were members of groups based abroad but who were acting alone in the US. Yet this provision conformed to the prevailing idea that all terrorists belonged to bigger groups and acted on orders from their superiors. The stereotype of the lone wolf terrorist that dominates today’s media landscape was not yet fully formed.

在确定了新的威胁之后,安全官员、记者和决策者需要一个新的词汇来描述它,“独狼”一词的兴起并非是完全史无前例的。鉴于911的严重后果,美国通过了反恐立法,其中包括所谓的“孤狼条款”。. 这使得追捕恐怖分子成为可能,这些恐怖分子是海外组织的成员,但在美国他们是单独行动的。在者,这一规定符合普遍的观点,即所有恐怖分子都属于更大的组织,并按照上级的命令行事。独霸今日媒体版面的孤狼恐怖分子的固定模式尚未完全形成。

纠正翻译

It is hard to be exact about when things changed. By around 2006, a small number of analysts had begun to refer to lone-wolf attacks in the context of Islamic militancy, and Israeli officials were using the term to describe attacks by apparently solitary Palestinian attackers. Yet these were outliers. In researching this article, I called eight counter-terrorism officials active over the last decade to ask them when they had first heard references to lone-wolf terrorism. One said around 2008, three said 2009, three 2010 and one around 2011. “The expression is what gave the concept traction,” Richard Barrett, who held senior counter-terrorist positions in MI6, the British overseas intelligence service, and the UN through the period, told me. Before the rise of the lone wolf, security officials used phrases – all equally flawed – such as “homegrowns”, “cleanskins”, “freelancers” or simply “unaffiliated”.

很难确切地知道事情何时发生了变化,2006年左右,在伊斯兰激进主义的环境下,少数分析家开始提及孤狼袭击,以色列官员用这个词来形容明显由巴勒斯坦袭击者制造的袭击,然而这些都是只孤立事件。在研究这篇文章时, 我给八名过去十年里活动于反恐领域的官员打电话,询问他们是什么时候第一次听到关于孤狼恐怖主义的消息。一人说在2008年左右,三人说2在009年,还有三人说2010年以及一人说2011年左右。“这样的表述给我们的思考提供了方向,” Richard Barrett说道,通过在英国海外情报局和联合国的这段时间告诉我,他曾在军情六处担任高级反恐职务。在孤狼崛起之前,安全官员使用的说法都是错误的,比如“本土崽子”、“千里不留痕”、“自由斗士”或简单的“单干王”。

纠正翻译

As successive jihadi plots were uncovered that did not appear to be linked to al-Qaida or other such groups, the term became more common. Between 2009 and 2012 it appears in around 300 articles in major English-language news publications each year, according the professional cuttings search engine Lexis Nexis. Since then, the term has become ubiquitous. In the 12 months before the London attack last week, the number of references to “lone wolves” exceeded the total of those over the previous three years, topping 1,000.

Lone wolves are now apparently everywhere, stalking our streets, schools and airports. Yet, as with the tendency to attribute all terrorist attacks to al-Qaida a decade earlier, this is a dangerous simplification.

随着圣战阴谋陆续被揭露,似乎不再与与基地组织或其他类似团体有关,这个词变得越来越常见。在2009到2012年间,这个词每年大约在300篇主要英语新闻刊物的文章中出现,根据专业搜索剪取引擎Lexis Nexis称,从那时起,这个词就变得无处不在了。在上周伦敦袭击前的12个月里,“孤狼”事件的数量超过了过去三年的总和,达到了1000件。

现在孤狼显然无处不在,偷偷接近我们的街道、学校和机场。然而,就像十年前将恐怖袭击归咎于基地组织的趋势一样,这样简单的归化很危险。

纠正翻译

In March 2012, a 23-year-old petty criminal named Mohamed Merah went on a shooting spree – a series of three attacks over a period of nine days – in south-west France, killing seven people. Bernard Squarcini, head of the French domestic intelligence service, described Merah as a lone wolf. So did the interior ministry spokesman, and, inevitably, many journalists. A year later, Lee Rigby, an off-duty soldier, was run over and hacked to death in London. Once again, the two attackers were dubbed lone wolves by officials and the media. So, too, were Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, the brothers who bombed the Boston Marathon in 2013. The same label has been applied to more recent attackers, including the men who drove vehicles into crowds in Nice and Berlin last year, and in London last week.

2012年三月,一名叫Mohamed Merah的23岁罪犯,他在法国西南部进行了一次枪击事件——该事件为期九天袭击三次,造成七人死亡。 法国国内情报局局长Bernard Squarcini描述Merah是一个孤狼事件,内政部发言人,不可避免地,许多记者都这么认为。一年后,一名叫下了班的士兵Lee Rigby在伦敦被碾死,官方和媒体又将这两次袭击称为孤狼事件。在2013年波士顿马拉松引爆炸弹的Tamerlan Tsarnaev兄弟也是如此。近期的袭击事件都被贴上了孤狼的标签,包括去年在尼斯和柏林以及上周在伦敦有男子驾驶车辆冲入人群的袭击事件。

纠正翻译

Boston Marathon bombings 2013


Pinterest

The Boston Marathon bombing carried out by Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev in 2013. Photograph: Dan Lampariello/Reuters

One problem facing security services, politicians and the media is that instant analysis is difficult. It takes months to unravel the truth behind a major, or even minor, terrorist operation. The demand for information from a frightened public, relayed by a febrile news media, is intense. People seek quick, familiar explanations.

Yet many of the attacks that have been confidently identified as lone-wolf operations have turned out to be nothing of the sort. Very often, terrorists who are initially labelled lone wolves, have active links to established groups such as Islamic State and al-Qaida. Merah, for instance, had recently travelled to Pakistan and been trained, albeit cursorily, by a jihadi group allied with al-Qaida. Merah was also linked to a network of local extremists, some of whom went on to carry out attacks in Libya, Iraq and Syria. Bernard Cazeneuve, who was then the French interior minister, later agreed that calling Merah a lone wolf had been a mistake.

Boston Marathon bombings 2013

脸谱网推特分享照片

2013,波士顿马拉松德霍卡尔和塔梅兰特萨尔纳耶夫进行的炸弹事件。图片来源:Dan Lampariello /路透社

安全服务、政客和媒体面临的一个问题是,很难及时分析这种事件。一个重大或次要的恐怖行动背后的真相,需要几个月的时间才能揭开。受惊公众渴求狂热新闻媒体传播的信息,人们要的是快速、通晓的解释。

然而,许多被自信地认定为独狼行动的袭击,被证明并非如此。通常,最初贴上孤狼标记的恐怖分子与诸如伊斯兰国和基地组织等已建立团体有着积极的联系。比如说,梅拉最近去了巴基斯坦一个与基地组织结盟的圣战组织接受训练,尽管那里的训练稍显马虎。Merah还与当地极端分子的网络有联系,其中有一些人继续在利比亚、伊拉克和叙利亚进行袭击。当时担任法国内政部长的Bernard Cazeneuve后来承认,称Merah为孤狼是一个错误。

纠正翻译

If, in cases such as Merah’s, the label of lone wolf is plainly incorrect, there are other, more subtle cases where it is still highly misleading. Another category of attackers, for instance, are those who strike alone, without guidance from formal terrorist organisations, but who have had face-to-face contact with loose networks of people who share extremist beliefs. The Exeter restaurant bomber, dismissed as an unstable loner, was actually in contact with a circle of local militant sympathisers before his attack. (They have never been identified.) The killers of Lee Rigby had been on the periphery of extremist movements in the UK for years, appearing at rallies of groups such as the now proscribed al-Muhajiroun, run by Anjem Choudary, a preacher convicted of terrorist offences in 2016 who is reported to have “inspired” up to 100 British militants.

如果按照Merah的情况,“孤狼”的标签显然是不正确的,还有其他更微妙的情况,仍然是具有高度误导性的。另一类袭击者,例如那些独自袭击的人,没有正式恐怖组织的指示,但却与宣扬恐怖主义的松散组织人员有过面对面的接触。埃克塞特餐馆引爆者,因为不合群被解雇了,实际上他在袭击之前与一个当地的武装支持者接触过。 (他们从来没有被确认过。) Lee Rigby的杀手们多年来一直处于英国极端主义运动的边缘, 出现在诸如现在被禁止的al Muhajiroun等团体的集会上,他们由Anjem Choudary指挥,他是一名在2016年被判犯有恐怖罪行的传教士,据报道他曾“激励”多达100名英国激进分子。

纠正翻译

A third category is made up of attackers who strike alone, after having had close contact online, rather than face-to-face, with extremist groups or individuals. A wave of attackers in France last year were, at first, wrongly seen as lone wolves “inspired” rather than commissioned by Isis. It soon emerged that the individuals involved, such as the two teenagers who killed a priest in front of his congregation in Normandy, had been recruited online by a senior Isis militant. In three recent incidents in Germany, all initially dubbed “lone-wolf attacks”, Isis militants actually used messaging apps to direct recruits in the minutes before they attacked. “Pray that I become a martyr,” one attacker who assaulted passengers on a train with an axe and knife told his interlocutor. “I am now waiting for the train.” Then: “I am starting now.”

第三类是在与极端组织或个人进行了网上接触而非面对面接触之后,独自实行袭击的人。去年法国发生了一系列袭击事件,起初,错误地被视为由孤狼激励而非由ISIS委托。很快就发现,参与这项活动的人,如两个在诺曼底集会前杀了一名牧师的青少年,早就在网上被一名高级ISIS激进分子招募。最近在德国发生的三起事件,最初都被称为“孤狼袭击”, ISIS激进分子实际上在袭击前的几分钟内使用消息应用程序指导新兵。用斧头和刀袭击火车上乘客的一名袭击者,对他的说话对象说“愿我成为烈士” 。 对方说“我正在等火车。” 随后袭击者说: “我要搭上通往烈士荣耀的火车了”。

纠正翻译

Very often, what appear to be the clearest lone-wolf cases are revealed to be more complex. Even the strange case of the man who killed 86 people with a truck in Nice in July 2016 – with his background of alcohol abuse, casual sex and lack of apparent interest in religion or radical ideologies – may not be a true lone wolf. Eight of his friends and associates have been arrested and police are investigating his potential links to a broader network.

What research does show is that we may be more likely to find lone wolves among far-right extremists than among their jihadi counterparts. Though even in those cases, the term still conceals more than it reveals.

通常情况下,最明显的孤狼案件被揭露出来其情况更加复杂。. 甚至是2016年7月在尼斯,一个人开卡车撞死86人的怪事——这个人酗酒、滥交并且缺乏明显的宗教或激进意识形态——也许不是真正的孤狼事件.。他的八名朋友和同事被捕,警方正在调查他与更广泛网络的潜在联系。

研究表明,我们可能比右翼极端分子的圣战者更容易发现他们中的孤狼。即使在这些情况下,这个词隐藏的仍然比它所揭示的更多。

纠正翻译

The murder of the Labour MP Jo Cox, days before the EU referendum, by a 52-year-old called Thomas Mair, was the culmination of a steady intensification of rightwing extremist violence in the UK that had been largely ignored by the media and policymakers. According to police, on several occasions attackers came close to causing more casualties in a single operation than jihadis had ever inflicted. The closest call came in 2013 when Pavlo Lapshyn, a Ukrainian PhD student in the UK, planted a bomb outside a mosque in Tipton, West Midlands. Fortunately, Lapshyn had got his timings wrong and the congregation had yet to gather when the device exploded. Embedded in the trunks of trees surrounding the building, police found some of the 100 nails Lapshyn had added to the bomb to make it more lethal.

欧盟公投前几天,一个叫Thomas Mair的52岁老人犯下的工党议员Jo Cox的谋杀案,这是媒体和决策者很大程度上忽视的英国右翼极端主义暴力不断加剧的恶果。据警方透露,在几次袭击者近距离实施的袭击中,单次行动所造成的伤亡超过了圣战组织单次行动所造成的伤亡。最近一次袭击是在2013年一名在英国攻读博士学位的乌克兰学生Pavlo Lapshyn, 在西米德兰兹蒂普顿清真寺外放置炸弹。幸运的是,Lapshyn定时错误,爆炸时集会人群还没开始集合。在建筑物周围的树干中,警方发现了Lapshyn用来加到炸弹里、使其更具杀伤力的100枚钉子。

纠正翻译

Lapshyn was a recent arrival, but the UK has produced numerous homegrown far-right extremists in recent years. One was Martyn Gilleard, who was sentenced to 16 years for terrorism and child pornography offences in 2008. When officers searched his home in Goole, East Yorkshire, they found knives, guns, machetes, swords, axes, bullets and four nail bombs. A year later, Ian Davison became the first Briton convicted under new legislation dealing with the production of chemical weapons. Davison was sentenced to 10 years in prison for manufacturing ricin, a lethal biological poison made from castor beans. His aim, the court heard, was “the creation of an international Aryan group who would establish white supremacy in white countries”.

Lapshyn是最近才到的,但英国近年来产生了大量的本土极右极端分子,一个便是 Martyn Gilleard。2008年,他因恐怖主义和儿童色情犯罪被判处16年有期徒刑。 当警察搜查他位于约克郡东部古尔的家时,他们发现了刀、枪、砍刀、刀剑、斧子、子弹和四枚钉子炸弹。一年后,Ian Davison成为第一个根据新法规因为生产化学武器而被定罪的英国人。 Davison因制造知名的生物毒素蓖麻毒被判处10年监禁。 据他在庭上交代,他的目标是“创建一个在白人国度建立白人至上制度的国际雅利安组织”。

纠正翻译

Lapshyn, Gilleard and Davison were each described as lone wolves by police officers, judges and journalists. Yet even a cursory survey of their individual stories undermines this description. Gilleard was the local branch organiser of a neo-Nazi group, while Davison founded the Aryan Strike Force, the members of which went on training days in Cumbria where they flew swastika flags.

Thomas Mair, who was also widely described as a lone wolf, does appear to have been an authentic loner, yet his involvement in rightwing extremism goes back decades. In May 1999, the National Alliance, a white-supremacist organisation in West Virginia, sent Mair manuals that explained how to construct bombs and assemble homemade pistols. Seventeen years later, when police raided his home after the murder, they found stacks of far-right literature, Nazi memorabilia and cuttings on Anders Breivik, the Norwegian terrorist who murdered 77 people in 2011.

Lapshyn, Gilleard和Davison每个人都被警察、法官以及记者描述为孤狼。然而,对他们个人事迹的粗略调查也让这种描述站不住脚。. Gilleard是新纳粹组织的当地分部组织者,而Davison创立了雅利安突击队,他们的成员在坎布里亚郡进行训练日,在那里他们扬起纳粹旗帜。

Thomas Mair也被广泛地描述为孤狼,似乎是一个真正的孤狼,但他参与右翼极端主义可以追溯到几十年前。 1999年5月,国家联盟,西弗吉尼亚的白人至上主义组织,送给Mair一本解释如何制造炸弹和装配手枪的指南手册。十七年后,警方在谋杀事件后搜查了他的家,他们发现了一堆极右翼的文学作品,纳粹纪念品和在2011年谋杀了77人的挪威恐怖分子Anders Breivik的剪报。

纠正翻译

Government building in Oslo bombed by Anders Breivik, 2011


Pinterest

A government building in Oslo bombed by Anders Breivik, July 2011. Photograph: Scanpix/Reuters

Even Breivik himself, who has been called “the deadliest lone-wolf attacker in [Europe’s] history”, was not a true lone wolf. Prior to his arrest, Breivik had long been in contact with far-right organisations. A member of the English Defence League told the Telegraph that Breivik had been in regular contact with its members via Facebook, and had a “hypnotic” effect on them.

If such facts fit awkwardly with the commonly accepted idea of the lone wolf, they fit better with academic research that has shown that very few violent extremists act without letting others know what they may be planning. In the late 1990s, after realising that in most instances school shooters would reveal their intentions to close associates before acting, the FBI began to talk about “leakage” of critical information. By 2009, it had extended the concept to terrorist attacks, and found that “leakage” was identifiable in more than four-fifths of 80 ongoing cases they were investigating. Of these leaks, 95% were to friends, close relatives or authority figures.

Government building in Oslo bombed by Anders Breivik, 2011

脸谱网推特提供照片

2011年7月,奥斯陆的一座国会大厦遭到Anders Breivik的炸弹袭击。Photograph: Scanpix/Reuters

甚至Breivik他自己,被称为“欧洲历史上最致命的孤狼杀手”,也并非真正的孤狼。在被捕前,Breivik长期与极右翼组织接触。英国国防联盟的一位成员告诉《电讯报》说,Breivik经常在脸谱网上与会员保持联系,并对他们产生了催眠作用。

如果这些事实与广为认同的孤狼观念不符, 它们更符合表明绝大多数暴力极端分子在让别人知道他们计划的情况下行动的学术研究。20世纪90年代末,学校手枪会会在大多数人意识到他们透露的意图之后采取行动。联邦调查局开始谈论“泄漏”的关键信息。 到2009,联邦调查局将这一概念扩展到恐怖袭击,并发现在80个正在调查的案件中,超过五分之四的案件肯定存在泄漏问题,在这些“泄漏问题”中,有95%是透露给朋友、近亲或权威人物的。

纠正翻译

More recent research has underlined the garrulous nature of violent extremists. In 2013, researchers at Pennsylvania State University examined the interactions of 119 lone-wolf terrorists from a wide variety of ideological and faith backgrounds. The academics found that, even though the terrorists launched their attacks alone, in 79% of cases others were aware of the individual’s extremist ideology, and in 64% of cases family and friends were aware of the individual’s intent to engage in terrorism-related activity. Another more recent survey found that 45% of Islamic militant cases talked about their inspiration and possible actions with family and friends. While only 18% of rightwing counterparts did, they were much more likely to “post telling indicators” on the internet.

最近的研究强调暴力极端分子话多的本性。2013年宾夕法尼亚州立大学研究人员基于各种各样的思想信仰背景,测试了119名孤狼恐怖分子的互动。学者们发现,即使恐怖分子单独发动袭击,79%情况下,其他人会知道这个人的意识形态,在64%的情况下,家人和朋友都知道这个人参与恐怖主义活动的意图。另一项最近的调查发现,45%的伊斯兰激进分子与家人和朋友谈论了他们的灵感和可能采取的行动,而只有18%的会这么做右翼人士只有18%,她们更喜欢在互联网上“发布说明指示”。

纠正翻译

Few extremists remain without human contact, even if that contact is only found online. Last year, a team at the University of Miami studied 196 pro-Isis groups operating on social media during the first eight months of 2015. These groups had a combined total of more than 100,000 members. Researchers also found that pro-Isis individuals who were not in a group – who they dubbed “online ‘lone wolf’ actors” – had either recently been in a group or soon went on to join one.


Any terrorist, however socially or physically isolated, is still part of a broader movement

极少的极端主义者不与人接触,即便只在网上接触。去年 迈阿密大学的一个研究小组在2015年的前八个月里研究了196个在社交媒体上运作的亲ISIS组织,这些团体共有100000多名成员。. 研究人员还发现不属于群体的亲ISIS个体,这些人被称为“在线孤狼行动者” ——要么是最近参加的,要么是很即将加入的。

任何恐怖分子,无论社会上还是物质上的孤立,都是更广泛活动的一部分。

纠正翻译


There is a much broader point here. Any terrorist, however socially or physically isolated, is still part of a broader movement. The lengthy manifesto that Breivik published hours before he started killing drew heavily on a dense ecosystem of far-right blogs, websites and writers. His ideas on strategy drew directly from the “leaderless resistance” school of Beam and others. Even his musical tastes were shaped by his ideology. He was, for example, a fan of Saga, a Swedish white nationalist singer, whose lyrics include lines about “The greatest race to ever walk the earth … betrayed”.

有一个更广泛的观点, 任何恐怖分子,无论社会上还是身体上被孤立了,都是更广泛活动的一部分。Breivik在他开始杀戮几小时前发表的一篇冗长的宣言,极大地利用了极右博客、网页以及作者的密集生态系统。他的战略思想直接源于Beam等人的“无领导抵抗”学派,甚至他的音乐品味也符合他的意识形态。他是,例如, Saga瑞典白人民族主义歌手的粉丝,他的歌词包括“世界上最伟大的种族…背叛了”。

纠正翻译

It is little different for Islamic militants, who emerge as often from the fertile and desperately depressing world of online jihadism – with its execution videos, mythologised history, selectively read religious texts and Photoshopped pictures of alleged atrocities against Muslims – as from organised groups that meet in person.

Terrorist violence of all kinds is directed against specific targets. These are not selected at random, nor are such attacks the products of a fevered and irrational imagination operating in complete isolation.

Just like the old idea that a single organisation, al-Qaida, was responsible for all Islamic terrorism, the rise of the lone-wolf paradigm is convenient for many different actors. First, there are the terrorists themselves. The notion that we are surrounded by anonymous lone wolves poised to strike at any time inspires fear and polarises the public. What could be more alarming and divisive than the idea that someone nearby – perhaps a colleague, a neighbour, a fellow commuter – might secretly be a lone wolf?

对于伊斯兰激进分子来说,这一点几乎没有什么不同,他们经常出现在网络圣战主义这个充满生机和绝望的世界里——其执行视频、传奇的历史、选择性地阅读宗教文本以及合成的针对穆斯林的暴行照片——来自互信的组织集团。

各种形式的恐怖主义暴力都针对特定的目标,这些目标不是随机选择的,也不是完全孤立的狂热和非理性想象的产物。

就像曾经的概念,基地组织这个单个的组织,为所有伊斯兰恐怖主义负责,孤狼式的兴起对许多不同行动者来说是方便的,首先是恐怖分子自身。我们被不知名的随时准备袭击的孤狼们包围着,这激起了公众的恐惧和两极分化。 有什么比这个想法:附近的人——也许是同事,邻居,通勤者——可能秘密地成为孤狼,更令人们分崩离析和恐惧?

纠正翻译

Terrorist groups also need to work constantly to motivate their activists. The idea of “lone wolves” invests murderous attackers with a special status, even glamour. Breivik, for instance, congratulated himself in his manifesto for becoming a “self-financed and self-indoctrinated single individual attack cell”. Al-Qaida propaganda lauded the 2009 Fort Hood shooter as “a pioneer, a trailblazer, and a role model who has opened a door, lit a path, and shown the way forward for every Muslim who finds himself among the unbelievers”.

The lone-wolf paradigm can be helpful for security services and policymakers, too, since the public assumes that lone wolves are difficult to catch. This would be justified if the popular image of the lone wolf as a solitary actor was accurate. But, as we have seen, this is rarely the case.

恐怖组织也需要不断地运作来激励他们的积极分子,“孤狼”这个有价值的目标赋予了杀人袭击者特殊的地位,甚至是魅力,例如,Breivik在他的宣言中祝贺自己成为一个“自给自足、以自我为信仰的独立攻击个体”,基地组织的宣传称赞2009胡德射手为 “一个先锋、一个开拓者、开启新世界的榜样,照亮了一条路,为无信仰者中每一个找到自己的穆斯林展示了前进的道路。

孤狼模式也有助于安全服务和政策制定者,因为公众认为孤狼难以捕捉。如果孤狼作为独行侠的公众形象是精准的,那么这是正确的,但是正如我们所见,符合孤狼定位的袭击者很罕见。

纠正翻译

Khalid Masood


Pinterest

Westminster terrorist Khalid Masood. Photograph: Reuters

The reason that many attacks are not prevented is not because it was impossible to anticipate the perpetrator’s actions, but because someone screwed up. German law enforcement agencies were aware that the man who killed 12 in Berlin before Christmas was an Isis sympathiser and had talked about committing an attack. Repeated attempts to deport him had failed, stymied by bureaucracy, lack of resources and poor case preparation. In Britain, a parliamentary report into the killing of Lee Rigby identified a number of serious delays and potential missed opportunities to prevent it. Khalid Masood, the man who attacked Westminster last week, was identified in 2010 as a potential extremist by MI5.

Khalid Masood

脸谱网推特分享图片

威斯敏斯特恐怖分子Khalid Masood。照片来源: 路透社

许多袭击没有被阻止的原因不是因为无法预见袭击者的行动,而是因为有些人把阻止行动搞砸了。德国执法机构意识到这名圣诞节前在柏林杀死12人的男子他是ISIS支持者,并曾说过要发动袭击。屡次驱逐他的尝试,碍于官僚主义、缺乏资源以及准备不足失败了。在英国,一份关于杀害Lee Rigby的议会报告确定,一些严重的延误以及能够采取阻止行动却被错过的机会阻止了阻止行动,上周袭击威斯敏斯特的Khalid Masood,2010被军情五处认定为潜在的极端分子。

纠正翻译

But perhaps the most disquieting explanation for the ubiquity of the term is that it tells us something we want to believe. Yes, the terrorist threat now appears much more amorphous and unpredictable than ever before. At the same time, the idea that terrorists operate alone allows us to break the link between an act of violence and its ideological hinterland. It implies that the responsibility for an individual’s violent extremism lies solely with the individual themselves.

The truth is much more disturbing. Terrorism is not something you do by yourself, it is highly social.People become interested in ideas, ideologies and activities, even appalling ones, because other people are interested in them.

但也许对这个无处不在的术语最令人不安的解释是,它告诉我们一些我们想相信的东西。是的,恐怖威胁现在看起来比以往任何时候都更加无定形和不可预知,与此同时,恐怖分子单独行动的想法可以让我们切断暴力行为与意识形态腹地之间的联系,这意味着个人暴力极端主义的责任仅在于个人自身。

真相更令人不安, 恐怖主义不是你自己做的某件事,它是高度社会化的。人们对其思想、意识形态和活动甚至是骇人听闻的活动都感兴趣,因为其他人对它们感兴趣。

纠正翻译

In his eulogy at the funeral of those killed in the mosque shooting in Quebec, the imam Hassan Guillet spoke of the alleged shooter. Over previous days details had emerged of the young man’s life. “Alexandre [Bissonette], before being a killer, was a victim himself,” said Hassan. “Before he planted his bullets in the heads of his victims, somebody planted ideas more dangerous than the bullets in his head. Unfortunately, day after day, week after week, month after month, certain politicians, and certain reporters and certain media, poisoned our atmosphere.

在魁北克清真寺枪击案中遇难者的葬礼上,伊斯兰教领袖Hassan Guillet在悼词中谈到了疑似枪手。综合前几天这名年轻男子生活中的细节,“Alexandre [Bissonette]在成为杀手之前,本身是一个受害者,” Hassan说道。“在他射杀那些被害人之前,有些人向他灌输了及其危险的想法。不幸的是,某些政客、记者以及媒体日复一日、周复一周、月复一月地扰乱恐怖袭击的预测环境。

纠正翻译

“We did not want to see it …. because we love this country, we love this society. We wanted our society to be perfect. We were like some parents who, when a neighbour tells them their kid is smoking or taking drugs, answers: ‘I don’t believe it, my child is perfect.’ We don’t want to see it. And we didn’t see it, and it happened.”

“But,” he went on to say, “there was a certain malaise. Let us face it. Alexandre Bissonnette didn’t emerge from a vacuum.”


“我们不想看到恐怖袭击 ….因为我们热爱这个国家、这个社会,我们希望我们的社会是完美的。我们就像一些父母,当邻居对他们说他们的孩子吸烟或吸毒时,回答:“我不相信,我的孩子是完美的。” 我们也不想看到恐怖袭击,我们以前也没看到过,但它确实发生了。
“但是” 他继续说道:“我们需要面对现实,确实存在某种不满的意识,Alexandre Bissonnette并非空穴来风。” clien

in some way.

 

纠正翻译